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Magnetic field lines enter the Earth’s surface at different angles depending on where you are.

At the equator the field lines are horizontal to the surface , but at the poles they are at right angles to the surface.

This means that as you get closer to the poles a compass needle will align with the dip of the field lines and thus at the poles will align vertically with the magnet field lines.

This is why a magnetic compass will point downwards when used at the magnetic north. 


Earths geographic North pole is not the same as earths Magnetic North pole.

The difference between the North Pole and the Magnetic North Pole is that the former is a geographic pole with a stationary location at 90°North.

This geographic North Pole, also known as true north, is the fixed northernmost point on earth from which all points lie south.

The magnetic pole is not based on true north, but on the magnetosphere of the planet. It lies hundreds of miles (kilometers) from true north, with its exact position constantly shifting which is presumed to be the effect of the mantles and the sun.

The earth's magnetic north pole is currently situated about 11 degress from it's geographic North pole, and is in the vicinity of North Canada.

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