Hall Elements

Detects magnetic field and output analog signal proportional to its intensity.
Principally used for motor drivers and linear position detection.

 

[ About each series ]

-- HW / HS series:

   Ultra-high sensitivity. Best suited to motor drivers.

 

-- HQ series:

   High sensitivity and low current consumption are achieved simultaneously.

   Excellent thermal characteristic. Suitable for battery-powered mobile equipment.

 

-- HG series:

   Excellent thermal characteristic. Linear output. Best suited to current sensors.

 

-- HZ series:

   Excellent thermal characteristic. Linear output. Best suited to current sensors.

   Corresponds to automotive applications.

 

The product catalog is here.

GaAs (Low Drift)

Part# Data
Sheet
Automotive
qualified
Package
Size
Package Oper.
Temp.
Input
Resistance
Output
Resistance
Output Hall
Voltage[@ 50mT, 6V]
Offset
Voltage[@ 6V]
Output Hall
Voltage[@ 50mT, 5mA]
Offset
Voltage[@ 5mA]





Ω Ω mV mV mV mV
   
HG-07111.2×0.5×0.34-SON-40 to 125650 to 850650 to 85055 to 75-11 to +11
HG-07121.2×0.5×0.34-SON-40 to 125450 to 7501000 to 200075 to 95-16 to +16
HG-07131.2×0.5×0.34-SON-40 to 1251000 to 15001800 to 300078 to 102-8 to +8
HG-07141.2×0.5×0.34-SON-40 to 1251600 to 24003200 to 480078 to 102-8 to +8
HG-07151.2×0.5×0.34-SON-40 to 1252200 to 32004400 to 640080 to 110-8 to +8
HG-08111.6×0.8×0.384-SON-40 to 125650 to 850650 to 85055 to 75-11 to +11
HG-08121.6×0.8×0.384-SON-40 to 125450 to 7501000 to 200075 to 95-16 to +16
HG-08131.6×0.8×0.384-SON-40 to 1251000 to 15001800 to 300078 to 102-8 to +8
HG-08141.6×0.8×0.384-SON-40 to 1251600 to 24003200 to 480078 to 102-8 to +8
HG-08151.6×0.8×0.384-SON-40 to 1252200 to 32004400 to 640080 to 110-8 to +8
HG-106A2.5×1.5×0.64-SOP-40 to 125450 to 7501000 to 200075 to 95-16 to +16
HG-106C2.5×1.5×0.64-SOP-40 to 125650 to 850650 to 85055 to 75-11 to +11
HG-106C-2U2.5×1.5×0.64-SOP-40 to 125650 to 850650 to 85055 to 75-11 to +11
HG-116CYes2.5×1.5×0.64-SOP-40 to 125650 to 850650 to 85034 to 52-7 to +7
HG-116SYes2.5×1.5×0.64-SOP-40 to 125450 to 7501000 to 200030 to 56-8 to +8
HG-166A2.5×1.5×0.64-SOP-40 to 1251000 to 15001800 to 300078 to 102-8 to +8
HG-166A-2U2.5×1.5×0.64-SOP-40 to 1251000 to 15001800 to 300078 to 102-8 to +8
HG-176A2.5×1.5×0.64-SOP-40 to 1251600 to 24003200 to 480078 to 102-8 to +8
HG-186A2.5×1.5×0.64-SOP-40 to 1252200 to 32004400 to 640080 to 110-8 to +8
HG-302C2.35×2.7×0.954-SIP-40 to 125650 to 850650 to 85055 to 75-11 to +11
HG-302SYes2.35×2.7×0.954-SIP-40 to 125450 to 7501000 to 200075 to 95-16 to +16
HG-362A2.35×2.7×0.954-SIP-40 to 1251000 to 15001800 to 300078 to 102-8 to +8
HG-372A2.35×2.7×0.954-SIP-40 to 1251600 to 24003200 to 480078 to 102-8 to +8

InAs (High Sensitivity)

Part# Data
Sheet
Automotive
qualified
Package
Size
Package Oper.
Temp.
Input
Resistance
Output
Resistance
Output Hall
Voltage[@ 50mT, 3V]
Offset
Voltage[@ 3V]
Output Hall
Voltage[@ 50mT, 5mA]
Offset
Voltage[@ 5mA]





Ω Ω mV mV mV mV
   
HQ-02212.0×1.25×0.64-SON-40 to 125370 to 570750 to 115090 to 130-6 to +6
HQ-02222.0×1.25×0.64-SON-40 to 125370 to 570750 to 115090 to 130-6 to +6
HQ-08111.6×0.8×0.384-SON-40 to 125750 to 1150750 to 115090 to 130-6 to +6
HQ-82205.0×6.2×1.0TSSOP-40 to 125750 to 1150750 to 115090 to 130-6 to +6

InSb (Ultra Sensitivity)

Part# Data
Sheet
Automotive
qualified
Package
Size
Package Oper.
Temp.
Input
Resistance
Output
Resistance
Output Hall
Voltage[@ 50mT, 1V]
Classification of Output Hall Voltage Offset
Voltage[@ 1V]





Ω Ω mV   mV
   
HS-01111.6×0.8×0.454-SON-40 to 110260 to 410260 to 41052 to 67-6 to +6
HW-101A2.9×2.9×1.14-SOP-40 to 110240 to 550240 to 550168 to 370C,D,E,F,G-7 to +7
HW-101A-4T3.9×2.9×1.14-SOP-40 to 110240 to 550240 to 550168 to 370C,D,E,F,G-7 to +7
HW-102A2.9×3.1×2.054-SOP-40 to 110250 to 450250 to 450196 to 370D,E,F,G-7 to +7
HW-105A2.1×2.1×0.554-SOP-40 to 110250 to 450250 to 450168 to 274C,D,E-10 to +10
HW-105C2.1×2.1×0.554-SOP-40 to 110250 to 450250 to 45041 to 74Q,R-7 to +7
HW-108A2.1×2.1×0.84-SOP-40 to 110250 to 450250 to 450168 to 320C,D,E,F-7 to +7
HW-300B2.9×2.7×1.654-SIP-40 to 110240 to 550240 to 550144 to 370B,C,D,E,F-7 to +7
HW-322B2.35×2.7×0.954-SIP-40 to 110240 to 550240 to 550228 to 370E,F,G-7 to +7

[ Outline of Hall element ]

What is the Hall element ?                                                                                                                             

The Hall element is a magnetic sensor that uses the Hall effect.

A magnetic field generated by a magnet or an electric current is converted into an electrical signal for output.

The Hall element is an application of the electromagnetic effect on the electric current (known as the "Hall effect").

The Hall effect is named for Dr. E. Hall, a U.S. physicist who discovered this phenomenon in 1879.

 

Principle of Hall element operation                                                                                                                

The Hall element is composed of micrometer order thin film on a semiconductor.

 < Figure.1 :Principle of the Hall element >  

 

It has electrodes (1), (2), (3) and (4) as shown in Figure 1, and electric current is produced by applying voltage

between (1) and (3).

When a magnetic field is applied vertically in the direction that penetrates from the surface of the thin film to the

reverse side, the flow of electrons in the semiconductor thin film is bent by Lorentz's force, and the distribution of

flow of electrons in the film shifts to the side of the electrode (4).

As a result, potential difference VΗ is generated between the output terminals (2) and (4).

This is called the Hall effect.

The VΗ is called the Hall output voltage and its magnitude can be shown by the following expression.

 

As shown above, output voltage VH is proportional to the control current IC and magnetic flux density B is obtained

by the Hall element.

Where RΗ is a constant called the Hall coefficient, and expressed as follows:

 

         e: Electric charge of electron

         n: Carrier density of semiconductor

 

 

Drive of the Hall element                                                                                                                               

There are constant current drive and constant drive modes in the drive mode of the Hall element.

 

-- Constant current drive:

When the Hall element is driven by constant current mode, VH is expressed as follows:

The thermal characteristic of VΗ becomes the characteristic of RΗ, i.e., the thermal characteristic of n.

 

-- Constant voltage drive:

When the Hall element is driven by constant voltage mode, VH is expressed as follows:

 

Where, μΗ is the mobility of the semiconductor and L and W are the width and the length of the semiconductor

thin film (See Figure 1).

The thermal characteristic of VΗ becomes the thermal characteristic of μΗ.

 

Material of the Hall element                                                                                                                            

As shown above, output voltage VΗ of the Hall element is dependent on mobility μΗ and Hall coefficient RΗ of the

material.

This means that if the mobility of the material is large, the Hall output voltage is also large.

Accordingly, a III-V family compound semiconductor with large mobility is generally used as the material for the

Hall element.

 

 

While InSb has the greatest electron mobility among semiconductors, at 78000 (cm2/VS), the temperature

dependence is large.

While GaAs has electron mobility of 8500 (cm2/VS), which is about 1/10 that of InSb, the temperature

dependence is better with the large band gap.

InAs has intermediate electron mobility and band gap between those of InSb and GaAs, and demonstrates

intermediate characteristics between those two semiconductors with high sensitivity and good thermal

characteristics.

 

Offset voltage                                                                                                                                                

Offset voltage Vos is one of the basic characteristics of the Hall element.

Offset voltage is a voltage produced between the output terminals when the magnetic flux density is 0.

This is sometimes called the residual voltage because it is produced only by applying electric current and voltage

to the Hall element.

The sum of this offset voltage and the Hall output voltage is produced between the output terminals of the Hall

element.

In general, the offset voltage is affected by a variety of factors, such as offset of the pattern when the Hall

element is manufactured and lack of uniformity, etc., and it is considerably complex.

 

 

 

[ How to select Hall elements ]

We offer a range of Hall elements featuring a variety of materials and package compositions to meet different

customer requirements. Use the following procedure to select the Hall element that best suit your application.

 

-- Mode of use for application of Hall element:

 

Comparison between HQ, HZ and HG series                                                                                                 

-- In the case of constant voltage drive

(*) Normal sensitivity HG and HZ series are converted because they are specified by the offset voltage.

 

-- Constant voltage drive

     

    < Constant voltage VH thermal characteristics of various Hall elements >

 

-- Constant current drive

(*)Normal sensitivity HG and HZ series are converted because they are specified by the offset voltage.

(**)Because the output voltage in the constant current drive is not specified, it is stated as an approximate value.

 

   

     < Constant current VΗ thermal characteristics of various Hall elements >

[ FAQ about Hall elements ]

Hall element common

Q1. How is the equivalent circuit of the hall element?

Q2. How should we drive the hall element?

Q3. How should we amplify the output of the hall element?

Q4. What kind of plating is applied to the lead terminals?

Q5. Which hall element has the best linearity against the magnetic flux density?

 

HW series, HS series

Q1. For the surface mounting DIP type HW series, where is No.1 pin?

Q2. How should we specify the sensitivity rank when ordering HW series hall elements?

Q3. How should we determine the value of the limiting resistor?

Q4. Can we use it without the limiting resistor?

Q5. What is the difference between the ultra-sensitive type and highly sensitive high linearity type?

 

HG series

Q1. Which is better when driving HG series hall elements, the constant current drive or constant voltage drive?

Q2. How should we choose the best one, from the standard type to the ultra-sensitive type?

 

HQ series

Q1. Which is better when driving HQ series hall elements, the constant current drive or constant voltage drive?

 

HZ series

Q1. Which is better when driving HZ series hall elements, the constant current drive or constant voltage drive?

 

[ FAQ and answers about Hall elements ]

Hall element common                                                                                                                                 

-- Q1. How is the equivalent circuit of the hall element?

     A1. The bridge circuit made by 4 resistors. Click here for reference. 

-- Q2. How should we drive the hall element? 

     A2. Click here for reference. 

-- Q3. How should we amplify the output of the hall element?

     A3. Click here for reference. 

-- Q4. What kind of plating is applied to the lead terminals?

     A4. HW-300A is silver plated.

           HW-300B and HW-302B are silver plated or tin plated.

           All others are tin plated and comply with RoHS. (As of June 2008)

-- Q5. Which hall element has the best linearity against the magnetic flux density?

     A5. That is the HG series hall element. The linearity is 2% or less up to 0.5T with the constant current drive. 

 

HW series, HS series

-- Q1. For the surface mounting DIP type HW series, where is No.1 pin?

     A1. Because the hall element can maintain characteristics within the specified range even if it turns by 180°,

           the upper right pin is No. 1 pin for the surface mounting type and the upper left pin is No. 1 pin for the

           DIP type.

-- Q2. How should we specify the sensitivity rank when ordering HW series hall elements?

     A2. Specify the sensitivity rank 3 or above for the design using ultra-sensitive type HW series hall elements.

           Ex) ABC, BCD, CDE, EFG ranks

           Highly sensitive types HW-105C and HW-108C have the sensitivity rank QR only, and HS-0111 has no

           sensitivity rank.

-- Q3. How should we determine the value of the limiting resistor.

     A3. The resistor values of HW series and HS series hall elements drop quickly at high temperature. Therefore,

           they are easily subject to burnout and care should be taken of the drive circuit. In general, a resistor is

           added in series with the hall element to prevent burnout. Click here to see how to determine the resistor

           value.

-- Q4. Can we use it without the limiting resistor?

     A4. Yes, you can. However, the voltage and current are considerably reduced compared with those with

           limiting resistors. Click here for the details.

-- Q5. What is the difference between the ultra-sensitive type and highly sensitive high linearity type?

     A5. The ultra-sensitive type has a magnetic core inside of it, so the output becomes higher at low magnetic

           field, but when the magnetic core reaches magnetic saturation, the tilting direction changes and the output

           voltage is not proportional to the magnetic flux density. (Refer to the figures below.) Therefore, this type is

           not suitable for the measurement of the magnetic flux density, then used to detect presence of the magnet.

           Because the highly sensitive high linearity type has no magnet core inside of it, it can obtain the linear

           output characteristics in wide range. For your information, when requiring the linearity, use it in the

           constant current drive. The constant voltage drive is affected by the magnetic resistance effect, so it is not

           proportional to the magnetic flux density.

 

HG series

-- Q1. Which is better when driving HG series hall elements, the constant current drive or constant voltage drive?

     A1. The temperature coefficient of the hall element output voltage is approx. -0.2% per °C for the constant

           voltage drive, and approx. -0.02% to -0.08% per °C for the constant current drive. As you see, the constant

           current drive has better coefficient, therefore basically use in the constant current drive. In addition, the

           constant current drive can ignore the magnetic resistance effect and has better linearity against the

           magnetic flux density at high magnetic field. The linearity of 2% or lower defined in the specifications is

           achieved by the constant current drive.

-- Q2. How should we choose the best one, from the standard type to the ultra-sensitive type?

     A2. As the type is graded up from the standard type to the ultra-sensitive type, both the constant voltage

           sensitivity and constant current sensitivity increase. Refer to the graphs and table below. However, since

           the input/output resistance values also increase, it is necessary to be careful of the circuit matching such

           as the amplifier rate. The standard type is the best in temperature characteristics of the hall element output

           voltage and unbalanced voltage, and the ultra-sensitive type is the worst.

 

 

                               [Characteristics list of HG series by grade at room temperature]

(*) indicates the actual value not defined in the specifications.

 

HQ series

-- Q1. Which is better when driving HQ series hall elements, the constant current drive or constant voltage drive?

     A1. The temperature coefficient of the hall element output voltage is approx. -0.2% per °C for the constant

           voltage drive, and approx. -0.4% per °C for the constant current drive. As you see, the constant voltage

           drive has better coefficient, therefore basically use in the constant voltage drive.

 

HZ series

-- Q1. Which is better when driving HZ series hall elements, the constant current drive or constant voltage drive?

     A1. The temperature coefficient of the hall element output voltage is approx. -0.2% per °C for the constant

           voltage drive, and approx. -0.08% to -0.12% per °C for the constant current drive. As you see, the constant

           current drive has better coefficient, therefore basically use in the constant current drive.

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